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Production and quality of candeal wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) in Argentina: analysis of 2014/2018 five-year period

Recibido 09 de septiembre de 2019 // Aceptado 24 de diciembre de 2019 // Publicado online 16 de diciembre de 2020
MOLFESE, E.R.1 ; FRITZ, N.2

ORIGINAL PAPER IN SPANISH

 

ABSTRACT

In Argentina, the cultivation of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum) was historically located in the southwest of the province of Buenos Aires, although for some years some surface has been incorporated under irrigation in the province of San Luis, and also of a significant amount of hectares in the provinces of Tucumán and Salta, due to the installation of an important mill and pasta factory, which use the durum wheat as an input for the production of their products. Also in the provinces of Córdoba and Santiago del Estero are aware of their cultivation. For marketing there is a system of “grades” that are assigned according to the result obtained on a representative sample to which the currently valid provision for noodles is applied corresponds to the resolution of the former National Grain Board No 31,591 (Standard SENASA xxi), which marks maximum tolerances allowed in each item. However, it is a common practice that each mill or processing factory agrees with the producer a contract where it applies bonuses and / or rebates on the basis of certain scales set for commercial and industrial quality parameters, such as: test weight, vitreosity, gluten and / or protein. This type of market is closed and agreements between producers and industry are finalized, thus guaranteeing a predictable and stable price, since it is taken as the base price of wheat bread plus a plus that can be variable between years and between companies as well. On an experimental level there are numerous works in our country that have evaluated the factors that affect the final quality of the wheats in different multiambient trials generating valuable information. On the other hand, for a long time, there was no data on the quality of national production. As a consequence, there was a need to monitor production through a systematic and representative monitoring mechanism of the different producing regions of this cereal. From the year 2000 and considering the historical importance of durum wheat, it was included in an annual survey with the collaboration of different organizations in the chain. Since then, a harvest report is published annually where quality data on grains and semolina are turned over. This information is available to both internal customers and potential external buyers. The objective of this work is to provide an approximation to the definition of the durum wheat market in Argentina in the last five years, evaluating the evolution of the planted area, production and yield, also characterizing the commercial and industrial quality of the raw material produced.

Keywords: durum wheat, production, commercial, industrial quality.

 

1 Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Chacra Experimental Integrada Barrow (Convenio MAIBA-INTA). Ruta 3, km 488 (7500), Tres Arroyos, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Correo electrónico: molfese.elenarosa@inta.gob.ar

2 Cámara Arbitral de Cereales de Bahía Blanca.

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