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Uses of hydrogen cyanamide and alternative products on kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.), and their potential application in Argentine
Kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.) is a decidious fruit tree which requires to accumulate a certain number of chilling hours below 7,2ºC to achieve optimal budbreak, flowering and contribute to an adequate fructification. Actinidia deliciosa (green kiwifruit) “Hayward”, the most cultivated variety in Argentina and in the whole world, needs to accumulate between 950 and 1150 chilling hours. Hydrogen cyanamide is the most used product to compensate for lack of chilling hours in soft winter areas, increasing budbreak and flowering uniformity, amount of budbreak and flowers/winter bud. This review shows that in cold winter areas, response to cyanamide is inconsistent, increasing amount of budbreak and flowering only in some cases. Regardless of winter condition, cyanamide would reduce the number of lateral flowers, which would imply a lower thinning cost and a higher production efficiency. Hydrogen cyanamide is used in the main kiwifruit producing countries in the world. European Union has restricted its use and new products are being tested, which have shown good results in soft winter areas with 600 chilling hours. In Argentine, the main kiwifruit growing areas are the north-northeast and southeast of Buenos Aires province. The insufficient chilling hours accumulation in the north-northeast, makes cyanamide an essential production tool. In addition, some alternative products could be considered for this area. In the souteast, where the crop would achieve the required chilling hours for an adequate budbreak and flowering, it’s not known if cyanamide would have an extra effect apart from possibly reducing the number of lateral flowers. Authorization for use of budbreaks products in kiwifruit is being expected in the short term, which raises the issue of obtaining information about its effect in the different growing areas.
Keywords: budbreak, flowering, buds, chilling hours, Dormex, HiCane.
1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA) Balcarce, RN 226 km 73,5 (7620), Balcarce, Buenos Aires. Correo electrónico: email@example.com