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Methods to include phosphorus in wheat and maize under no-tillage in southeastern Buenos Aires
No till (SD) produces physical, chemical and biological changes in the soil and can affect crop P availability. Efficient use of fertilizers should combine factors such as rate, timing, placement method and source in a way to maximizes grain yield minimizing nutrient losses to the environment. The objective was to evaluate wheat (Triticum aestibum, L.) and maize (Zea mays, L.) crops response to P rate and placement method (banded 5 cm beside and below the seeds or broadcast 3 months before sowing) on grain yield, grain P content and fertilizer recovery efficiency. The experiments were carried out at Tandil (southeast of Buenos Aires Province) with a long history under SD. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with a factorial combination of P rate (0, 25 and 50 kg ha-1) and placement methods (in-line and broadcast three months before sowing). No interaction P rate and placement method were determined in both crops. Grain yield and grain P content was increased by rate and there were no differences between placement methods. Grain yield increases from P (average of fertilized treatments and control) was similar for both crops, 18 and 20% for wheat and maize, respectively. Similar result was determined for P content in grain, with increases of 22 and 28% for wheat and maize, respectively. In both crops, fertilizer recovery efficiency was not affected by P rate or placement method (17.4 and 12.1% for 25 and 50 kg P ha-1; 14.2 and 15.3% for broadcast and in-line, respectively). The results indicate that in stabilized no till system at southeast of Buenos Aires Province, soils with high OM
content and biological activity, the efficiency of P use would be similar for broadcast or in-line applications
Keywords: fertilization, phosphorus, no till, wheat, corn.
1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA) Balcarce, Unidad Integrada Balcarce
(UIB), Ruta Nac. 226 km 73,5 (7620) CC276. Balcarce, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Correo electrónico: email@example.com
2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).